A chemical compound that accelerates curing of resin materials.

Coating based on a polymer containing short carbon chain esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid.

A curing agent or converter used to bring about a reaction with a polymer.

Surface attraction that attaches one material’s surface to another.

Air Cap
Component located at the front of a spray nozzle which channels compressed air against the sprayed material to create a mist or atomized cloud of tiny droplets.

Air Flow
The amount of air moving through a defined area, i.e. the tent. Optimum speed is

Air Pressure
The relative force of air in a defined area or volume.

Airless Spray
A method of painting that uses high pressures to spray paint or other materials. Airless sprayers work by forcing paint through a small tip opening at very high pressure, rather than using compressed air.

Air Spray
Painting system in which paint is formed into tiny droplets suspended in air. The paint is atomized into droplets by a spray gun as a result of being forced into an air stream moving at relatively high speed. The pattern and concentration of the resulting paint spray cloud can be controlled by air pressure, paint viscosity, and gun tip size and angle.

Reduction of a material into tiny particles or a fine spray.

The bar is a unit of pressure equal to 100 kilopascals and roughly equal to the atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level. 1 bar is approximately equal to 14.5038 PSI.

Use of an abrasive under pressure to remove coatings or surface contamination that is too difficult to remove by other means.

Paint deformity that occurs when a layer of paint loses adhesion and separates from another layer.

Break-Free Rinse
The condition of water sheeting out completely over a surface. A break-free rinse indicates a surface is free of dust, grease and other contaminants.

Brush Ferrule
The metal band that binds the bristles or hair of a brush to its handle.

The term "buffing" typically indicates that a rotary buffer tool is used. While buffing, one could be compounding or polishing.  Compounding means, a rubbing compound is being used, which is typically the first buffing step in paint and gelcoat finishing operations after the sanding steps have been completed. Compounding is designed to remove sand scratches from the sanding operation.

A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process.

A corrosion inhibitor that is used to treat reactive metals such as aluminum, copper and zinc. The addition of chromate to a coating is very effective at inhibiting corrosion caused by oxidation. Chromium is toxic and, thus, highly regulated in many areas of the world, including Europe.

Clear Gloss
A transparent polyurethane coating that can be applied over substrates and coatings.

Compound used in two component coatings that contains resin and solvent. Converter is mixed with the base product in specific volumes and acts as a catalyst to harden the other compound.

Deterioration or deformation of a substrate usually attributed to oxidation, electrolysis or other chemical reaction that causes pieces of a substrate to react and detach from the original substance they were part of.

The measured area a certain quantity of paint will cover at a given thickness.

The process in which a chemical reaction occurs, transforming paint from one form to another.

Crosshatch Test
Destructive test in which a painted area is checked for adhesion to the paint or substrate beneath it.

The chemical and mechanical processes by which polymer products combine to create a single protective layer.

Carbon-fibre Reinforced Polymers, also known as carbon fibre, carbon composite or just carbon, are extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastics that contain carbon fibers.

A type of failure in which a layer or layers of a coating separate, flake or peel from the material to which they were attached.

Dew Point
Given a constant pressure, the temperature at which water vapor condenses out of the air.

Viscosity measurement based upon the time it takes a liquid to travel through a 4 mm hole.

Dry Film Thickness (DFT)
The depth or thickness of a coating on a surface after the coating has dried; usually measured in microns or mils.

Dry Spray
Paint that loses an excessive amount of solvent as it passes through the air, causing it to flow poorly or not all over the surface to which it is being applied.

Drying Time
Duration of time between a paint application and when it reaches a cured state.

Dry to Tape/Mask
Time between a paint application and when it can be taped or masked without damaging the surface.

Dry to Paint
Time between a paint application and when an additional coat can be applied with adequate adhesion.

Dry to Touch
Time between a paint application and when the coating is tack-free or safe to touch.

Paint that is characterized by its ability to form a smooth surface via a chemical reaction during the curing process. Originally associated with a high gloss, but may also include lower degrees of gloss. Paint that does not contain lacquer.

An adhesive, plastic, paint, or other material made from a class of synthetic thermosetting polymers containing epoxide, known for strong adhesion properties, increased mechanical strength, and resistance to solvents, and corrosive agents.

Electrostatic Application method is a paint application method that employs charged particles to more efficiently paint a workpiece. Paint is initially projected towards a conductive workpiece using normal spraying methods, and is then accelerated toward the work piece by a powerful electrostatic charge.

The process of filling and removing material on a substrate to achieve a linear, uniform surface.

Fairing Compound
Material used to fill depressions in a substrate. Binds to the substrate while being conducive to sanding, surfacing and finishing to achieve a smooth surface.

Film Thickness Gauge
A precise measuring device that indicates the thickness of a layer of paint or material.

Finish Coat
Also see Topcoat – the protective, final coating of paint with properties that are resistant to environmental factors and protects the substrate or underlying surface.

Fish Eyes
Defects in coatings characterized by small circular craters that look like a fish's eye that are mostly caused by surface contamination.

Fluid Nozzle
A precise valve at the output end of a spray gun that causes paint and solvent to break into small pieces or droplets that will attach to a surface.

Material usually applied to fiberglass structure in a mold which creates a finish on the visible side of the material. The most common gelcoats are unsaturated polyurethane resin based.

Gravity Gun
Spray gun that feeds paint to the nozzle from a reservoir located above the spray head.

Process using a powered abrasive device for the removal of material that cannot be removed with solvent or sanding.

Measuring standard for the abrasive quality of sandpaper. As grit numbers increase, the size of the abrasive decreases. The letter “P” is used to identify a paper that has been tested to ensure consistency.

Glass Reinforced Plastic, general term that covers all types of fiberglass substrates.

Guide Coat
A temporary paint, dye or chalk material used to mark areas of a surface in the sanding process. As higher relief areas are sanded, the guide coat is removed.

When a coating does not possess the chemical or mechanical characteristics to bind to another surface or coating.

Time required for base and converter compounds to cross-link or bind chemically. Induction time before application is essential for coatings to possess proper adhesion qualities.

Inlet Pressure
Air pressure measured at the spray gun. Best monitored and controlled with a regulator.

Inter-coat Adhesion
The adhesion or bond that exists between two separate layers of paint.

Hydroxyl chemical group that reacts to form a polymer. Used in polyurethane topcoat converters.

Viscosity flow cup for measuring the consistency of paints, varnishes and similar products. The measured kinematic viscosity is generally expressed in seconds(s) flow time.  For our topcoats  ISO Cup 3mm is used.

A clear or colored paint or varnish that cures by evaporation of a solvent.

Application of material to prevent paint from reaching an area or component.

Mixing Chart
Product preparation guide used to illustrate precise ratios of material that combine to form a usable coating.

The raised (fuzzy) surface used describe the thickness and absorption characteristics of a paint roller.

Nozzle Size
Metric or Imperial measurement denoting the size of the opening where the paint exits the spraying device.

The movement of molecules through a membrane or material from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.

Describes when a different product can be applied over an already applied coating. Additional coating of paint that interlocks with subsequent layers through adhesive properties.

Paint spray that adheres to an area outside the area targeted for coverage.

Corrosive process in which a material changes composition through a chemical reaction with the air, water or other material.

An applicable liquid which dries to a solid film through an evaporative or chemical process for the purpose of decoration and/or protection of a substrate.

A material or compound containing phenols (carbolic acid). Phenols are closely related to alcohol, but contain higher acidity levels.

Polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

Plastics that are composed of large molecules with repeating structural units.

Any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by a urethane link.

The process of heating a surface in order to expose the coatings and substrate to the working temperature when the surface is exposed to the sun. This is typically done to prevent print-through.

Pot Life
The period of time that a coating remains useful after opening or after a catalyst or other additive has been mixed. Also known as usable life.

Coating applied to a surface or substrate to increase its binding and adhesion for subsequent coatings as well as improving corrosion resistance for the underlying surface or substrate.

(sometimes referred to as bleed-through) is a generally undesirable effect where the underlying substrate is visible through the final topcoat of paint.

The elevation or relief of a surface when viewed from the side.

Protective Primer
A special grade of primers that contain additives that provide additional inhibitors to corrosion. ALEXSEAL Protective Primers 161 or 135 are uniquely formulated to provide additional protection for metal substrates from corrosive elements.

Pounds per Square Inch – a measurement of air pressure that is equivalent to 0.068947 bar.

Term describing when a second coat of the same coating product may be applied, typically without sanding.

A solvent material added to paint to lower the viscosity of the final material.

Resin/Epoxy Resin
A hydrocarbon compound used in the production of varnishes, adhesives & coatings. Typically mixed with a hardener to create a very hard, durable plastic substrate used commonly in boat building.

The manner in which liquid paint flows over a surface.

Safety Data Sheet
A form with data regarding the properties of a particular substance. SDS (safety data sheets) are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures.

Sheeting Out
When a water rinse flows over a surface in a continuous sheet with no breaks or interruption in consistency. Also known as a “break-free rinse,” indicating the absence of contaminants.

Siphon Cup
A spray gun system that draws paint up into the spray head from a reservoir located below the spray head or atomizer.

Skin Rashes
Area of irritated or swollen skin on your body that is often caused by a direct contact with epoxy. Some people are allergic or show a form of epoxy sensitisation. Can be prevented by using personal protection equipment.

A material with enhanced evaporative properties used to dissolve, dilute, and suspend paint materials.

The atomized paint particulates emitted from an atomizer or spray gun.

Spray Chart
Reference data that shows settings and ratios required to properly apply a coating via various spray gun equipment.

The underlying surface material that coatings and finishes are applied to protect and enhance.

Surface Degreaser
A wax and grease remover used to remove contaminates from gelcoat, painted surfaces and metal prior to priming. This is important for new hulls, decks and components that have been released from a mold, or an older boat with considerable wax buildup.

A final type of fairing in which comparatively minor surface imperfections are filled and/ or sanded to achieve a linear uniform surface.

Tack Rag
A special wiping cloth treated with a sticky additive. Tack rags are used to remove loose particles of dust, dirt and small particles that might contaminate a surface.

Tape Dry
Time between a paint application and when it can be taped without damaging the surface.

Technical Data Sheets
A document summarizing the performance, technical characteristics and usage procedures of a product.

Also see finish coat – the final protective and decorative coating of paint.

Device used to measure the thickness or density of a liquid.

The thickness or density of a liquid usually measured in Zahn cup or DIN cup.

Volatile Organic Compounds – hazardous emitted chemicals that may be carcinogenic or otherwise toxic to living organisms.

Wet Edge
A characteristic of paint maintaining a liquid or “wet” state as it is applied by brush or roller, so that additional strokes of paint will not reveal the edges of previous brush/roller strokes.

Wet Film Thickness (WFT)
Paint film thickness measured while it is still wet immediately after application. Measuring WFT will help determine how much material to apply wet to achieve a specified dry film thickness (DFT).

Wipe Down Solvent
Liquid solution used to remove contaminates and impurities on a primed or coated surface. ALEXSEAL Wipe Down Solvent (A9049) is an example of a Wipe Down Solvent.

Zahn Cup
Viscosity flow cup for measuring the consistency of paints, varnishes and similar products. There are 5 cup specifications in the Zahn standard of measurement. Zahn cup no. #2 is used for viscosity measurements. For measuring our topcoats we recommend the more accurate ISO cup 3mm.